The CSB issues safety recommendations to prevent the recurrence or reduce the likelihood or consequences of similar incidents or hazards in the future. Recommendations are issued to a variety of parties, including government entities, safety organizations, trade unions, trade associations, corporations, emergency response organizations, educational institutions, and public interest groups. Recommendations are published in CSB reports and are closed only by vote of the Board. The CSB tracks all recommendations and communicates regularly with recommendations recipients to ensure that the recommended corrective actions are implemented.

For more information, see Frequently Asked Questions about CSB recommendations.


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Recommendations

Acetylene Service Company Gas Explosion (5 Recommendations)
Acetylene Service Company (ASCO) (2 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-1

Improve isolation on acetylene generator water lines by incorporating a double-block-and-bleed with a vent to a safe location, or other isolation means of comparable effectiveness.


Status: Closed - No Longer Applicable
Closed - No Longer Applicable (C - NLA) - Due to subsequent events, the recommendation action no longer applies (e.g., the facility was destroyed or the company went out of business).
 

2005-3-I-NJ-2

Implement an effective Process Safety Management program, in accordance with OSHA 1910.119. Include written operating procedures and checklists that are understood by the workers responsible for using them. Train workers on the procedures and periodically confirm that they are being properly followed.


Status: Closed - No Longer Applicable
Closed - No Longer Applicable (C - NLA) - Due to subsequent events, the recommendation action no longer applies (e.g., the facility was destroyed or the company went out of business).
 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-5

Update the OSHA 1910.102 Acetylene Standard (a. Cylinders, b. Piped Systems, and c. Generators and filling cylinders) to remove the existing references to unavailable and obsolete Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets (CGA G-1-1966, G 1.3-1959, G 1.4-1966). As an alternative, consider incorporating by reference NFPA 51A Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

Rexarc, Inc. (2 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-3

Immediately inform existing acetylene generator users that the check valve did not prevent acetylene gas backflow in this incident. Recommend interim actions be taken to ensure that Rexarc check valves in service on acetylene production equipment will operate reliably.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

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2005-3-I-NJ-4

Replace check valves of this or similar design supplied by Rexarc with valves that will perform more reliably in recycle water service.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

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Aghorn Operating Waterflood Station Hydrogen Sulfide Release (9 Recommendations)
Aghorn Operating Inc. (7 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 21, 2021

2020-01-I-TX-1

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose workers or non-employees to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, mandate the use of personal H2S detection devices as an integral part of every employee or visitor personal protective equipment (PPE) kit prior to entering the vicinity of the facility. Ensure detector use is in accordance with manufacturer specifications.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-2

For all Aghorn facilities, develop a site-specific, formalized and comprehensive Lockout / Tagout program, to include policies, procedures, and training, to protect workers from energized equipment hazards, such as exposure to H2S. Ensure the program meets the requirements outlined in 29 CFR 1910.147 and includes energy control procedures, training, and periodic inspections.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-3

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose workers to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, commission an independent and comprehensive analysis of each facility design vis-à-vis ventilation and mitigation systems to ensure that, in the event of an accidental release, workers are protected from exposure to toxic gas levels.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-4

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose workers or non-employees to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, develop and demonstrate the use of a safety management program that includes a focus on protecting workers and non-employees from H2S. This program should include risk identification, assessment, mitigation, and monitoring of design, procedures, maintenance and training related to H2S. This program must be in compliance with 29 CFR 1910.1000 – Air Contaminants and 29 CFR 1910.147 – The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout / Tagout).


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-5

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose workers to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, ensure the H2S detection and alarm systems are properly maintained and configured, and develop site-specific detection and alarm programs and associated procedures based on manufacturer specifications, current codes, standards, and industry good practice guidance. The program must address installation, calibration, inspection, maintenance, training and routine operations.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-6

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose workers or non-employees within the perimeter of the facility to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, ensure that the H2S detection and alarm system designs employ multiple layers of alerts unique to H2S, such as with the use of both audible and visual mediums, so that workers and non-employees within the perimeter of the facility would be alerted to a significant release. The system design must meet manufacturer specifications, current codes, standards, and industry good practice guidance.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2020-01-I-TX-7

For all waterflood stations where the potential exists to expose non-employees to H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm, develop and implement a formal, written, site-specific security program to prevent unknown and unplanned entrance of those not employed by Aghorn, starting with a requirement for employees to lock access gates upon entering and departing the facility.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 21, 2021

2020-01-I-TX-8

Issue a safety information product (such as a safety bulletin or safety alert) that addresses the requirements for protecting workers from hazardous air contaminants and from hazardous energy.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 21, 2021

2020-01-I-TX-9

Develop and send a Notice to Operators to all oil and gas operators that fall under the jurisdiction of the Railroad Commission of Texas that describes the safety issues described in this report, including: 1. Nonuse of Personal H2S Detector 2. Nonperformance of Lockout / Tagout 3. Confinement of H2S Inside Pump House 4. Lack of Safety Management Program 5. Nonfunctioning H2S Detection and Alarm System 6. Deficient Site Security


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

AirGas Facility Fatal Explosion (6 Recommendations)
ACD, LLC (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-5

Provide effective warning about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards

Modify nitrous oxide pump product literature to include warnings about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards, illustrated by examples from historical incidents, and refer users to this CSB investigation report for additional information.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendations Status Change

AirGas, Inc. (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-1

The goal of 2016-04-I-FL-R1 is to prevent all nitrous oxide explosions at its facilities, while preventing harm to workers and the public.

Following the August 28, 2016, incident, the company began a comprehensive initiative to review its nitrous oxide production facilities, trucking fleet, and cylinder-filling operations.  The scope of the ongoing Air Liquide initiative is shown in Table 1. 

Complete the development and implementation of the company’s nitrous oxide business process safety initiative as shown in Table 1, consistent with the findings, conclusions, and recommendations contained in this report. 


Status: Closed - Exceeds Recommended Action
Closed - Exceeds Recommended Action (C - ERA) - Action on the recommendation meets and surpasses the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) (3 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-2

Safety Management System for Nitrous Oxide Manufacturing

Develop and implement a safety management system standard for nitrous oxide manufacturing, to manage known process safety hazards, including nitrous oxide decomposition, which includes appropriate elements based on chemical industry good practice guidance, such as CCPS Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety, Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards, and Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management.


Status: Closed - Exceeds Recommended Action
Closed - Exceeds Recommended Action (C - ERA) - Action on the recommendation meets and surpasses the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2016-04-I-FL-3

Ensure Effective Flame Arrestor Design

Modify Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard CGA G-8.3, Safe Practices for Storage and Handling of Nitrous Oxide to require testing of safety devices, such as strainers used as flame arrestors, for applications where a safety device is used to quench a nitrous oxide decomposition reaction.  To ensure that these safety devices meet the intended purpose, the user should test the safety device by simulating conditions of use.  In addition, require users to document the required performance standard or test protocol followed. 


Status: Closed - Acceptable Alternative Action
Closed - Acceptable Alternative Action (C - AAA)
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2016-04-I-FL-4

Require Pump Run-Dry Safety Interlocks Apply ISA-84

Modify Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard CGA G-8.3, Safe Practices for Storage and Handling of Nitrous Oxide to reference and require applying International Society of Automation (ISA) standard ISA-84, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector to safety interlocks such as the nitrous oxide pump “run-dry” shutdown.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

Cryostar USA, LLC (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-6

Provide effective warning about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards

Modify nitrous oxide pump product literature to include warnings about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards, illustrated by examples from historical incidents, and refer users to this CSB investigation report for additional information.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendations Status Change