The CSB issues safety recommendations to prevent the recurrence or reduce the likelihood or consequences of similar incidents or hazards in the future. Recommendations are issued to a variety of parties, including government entities, safety organizations, trade unions, trade associations, corporations, emergency response organizations, educational institutions, and public interest groups. Recommendations are published in CSB reports and are closed only by vote of the Board. The CSB tracks all recommendations and communicates regularly with recommendations recipients to ensure that the recommended corrective actions are implemented.

For more information, see Frequently Asked Questions about CSB recommendations.


Quick Search

 
Recommendations Status:
 
 
Expand All

Recommendations

Arkema Inc. Chemical Plant Fire (5 Recommendations)
Arkema Crosby Facility (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 24, 2018

2017-08-I-TX-1

Reduce flood risk to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). Ensure that any safeguards for flooding meet independent layer of protection requirements.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

Arkema Inc. (2 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 24, 2018

2017-08-I-TX-2

Within 18 months, develop a policy requiring that Arkema and its subsidiaries that manufacture organic peroxides or that have processes which involve more than the threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHC) periodically (corresponding with PHA cycle), analyze such facilities to determine whether they are at risk for extreme weather events such as hurricanes or floods.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

2017-08-I-TX-3

Establish corporate requirements for its facilities that manufacture organic peroxides or that have processes which involve more than the threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHC) to ensure that critical safeguards, such as backup power, function as intended during extreme weather events, including hurricanes or floods.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 24, 2018

2017-08-I-TX-4

Develop broad and comprehensive guidance to help companies assess their U.S. facility risk from all types of potential extreme weather events. Guidance should address the issues identified in this report and cover actions required to prepare for extreme weather, resiliency and protection of physical infrastructure and personnel during extreme weather, as well as recovery operations following an extreme weather event, where appropriate. Include guidance for each of the following:

• Addressing common mode failures of critical safeguards or equipment that could be caused by extreme weather events, including but not limited to flooding. For flooding scenarios, sufficient independent layers of protection should be available if floodwater heights reach the facility.

• Evaluating facility susceptibility to potential extreme weather events. Relevant safety information such as flood maps should be incorporated as process safety information.

• Involving relevant professional disciplines, including engineering disciplines, to help ensure risk assessments and process hazard analyses are as robust as practicable for any given facility.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

Harris County, TX (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: May 24, 2018

2017-08-I-TX-5

Update your emergency operations training using lessons learned from the Arkema incident to help ensure that personnel enforcing evacuation perimeters are not harmed by exposure to hazardous chemical releases. Update existing protocols and revise training curricula to include the use of analytical tools, air monitoring, and personal protective equipment, to provide appropriate protection when emergency equipment or personnel need to be moved through an evacuation zone during a hazardous materials release. Include a process for periodic refresher training.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

Acetylene Service Company Gas Explosion (5 Recommendations)
Acetylene Service Company (ASCO) (2 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-1

Improve isolation on acetylene generator water lines by incorporating a double-block-and-bleed with a vent to a safe location, or other isolation means of comparable effectiveness.


Status: Closed - No Longer Applicable
Closed - No Longer Applicable (C - NLA) - Due to subsequent events, the recommendation action no longer applies (e.g., the facility was destroyed or the company went out of business).
 

2005-3-I-NJ-2

Implement an effective Process Safety Management program, in accordance with OSHA 1910.119. Include written operating procedures and checklists that are understood by the workers responsible for using them. Train workers on the procedures and periodically confirm that they are being properly followed.


Status: Closed - No Longer Applicable
Closed - No Longer Applicable (C - NLA) - Due to subsequent events, the recommendation action no longer applies (e.g., the facility was destroyed or the company went out of business).
 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-5

Update the OSHA 1910.102 Acetylene Standard (a. Cylinders, b. Piped Systems, and c. Generators and filling cylinders) to remove the existing references to unavailable and obsolete Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets (CGA G-1-1966, G 1.3-1959, G 1.4-1966). As an alternative, consider incorporating by reference NFPA 51A Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

Rexarc, Inc. (2 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: January 25, 2006

2005-3-I-NJ-3

Immediately inform existing acetylene generator users that the check valve did not prevent acetylene gas backflow in this incident. Recommend interim actions be taken to ensure that Rexarc check valves in service on acetylene production equipment will operate reliably.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Download

2005-3-I-NJ-4

Replace check valves of this or similar design supplied by Rexarc with valves that will perform more reliably in recycle water service.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Download

AirGas Facility Fatal Explosion (6 Recommendations)
ACD, LLC (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-5

Provide effective warning about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards

Modify nitrous oxide pump product literature to include warnings about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards, illustrated by examples from historical incidents, and refer users to this CSB investigation report for additional information.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendations Status Change

Air Liquide (1 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-1

The goal of 2016-04-I-FL-R1 is to prevent all nitrous oxide explosions at its facilities, while preventing harm to workers and the public.

Following the August 28, 2016, incident, the company began a comprehensive initiative to review its nitrous oxide production facilities, trucking fleet, and cylinder-filling operations.  The scope of the ongoing Air Liquide initiative is shown in Table 1. 

Complete the development and implementation of the company’s nitrous oxide business process safety initiative as shown in Table 1, consistent with the findings, conclusions, and recommendations contained in this report. 


Status: Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response
Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response (O - ARAR) - Response from recipient indicates a planned action that would satisfy the objective of the recommendation when implemented.
 

PDF Document Recommendations Status Change

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) (3 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-2

Safety Management System for Nitrous Oxide Manufacturing

Develop and implement a safety management system standard for nitrous oxide manufacturing, to manage known process safety hazards, including nitrous oxide decomposition, which includes appropriate elements based on chemical industry good practice guidance, such as CCPS Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety, Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards, and Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

2016-04-I-FL-3

Ensure Effective Flame Arrestor Design

Modify Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard CGA G-8.3, Safe Practices for Storage and Handling of Nitrous Oxide to require testing of safety devices, such as strainers used as flame arrestors, for applications where a safety device is used to quench a nitrous oxide decomposition reaction.  To ensure that these safety devices meet the intended purpose, the user should test the safety device by simulating conditions of use.  In addition, require users to document the required performance standard or test protocol followed. 


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

2016-04-I-FL-4

Require Pump Run-Dry Safety Interlocks Apply ISA-84

Modify Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard CGA G-8.3, Safe Practices for Storage and Handling of Nitrous Oxide to reference and require applying International Society of Automation (ISA) standard ISA-84, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector to safety interlocks such as the nitrous oxide pump “run-dry” shutdown.


Status: Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response
Open - Awaiting Response or Evaluation/Approval of Response (O - ARE/AR) - The recipient has not submitted a substantive response, or the evaluation by CSB staff of a response is pending, or the Board has not yet acted on staff recommendation of status.
 

Cryostar USA, LLC (1 Recommendations)
Open: 0% | Closed: 100%

Final Report Released On: April 20, 2017

2016-04-I-FL-6

Provide effective warning about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards

Modify nitrous oxide pump product literature to include warnings about nitrous oxide decomposition hazards, illustrated by examples from historical incidents, and refer users to this CSB investigation report for additional information.


Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Closed - Acceptable Action (C - AA) - The recipient has completed action on the recommendation. The action taken meets the objectives envisioned by the Board.
 

PDF Document Recommendations Status Change

AL Solutions Fatal Dust Explosion (4 Recommendations)
AL Solutions, Inc. (2 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: July 16, 2014

2011-3-I-WV-1

For all new and existing equipment and operations at AL Solutions facilities that process combustible dusts or powders, apply the following chapters of NFPA 484-2012, Standard for Combustible Metals:

  • Chapter 12, Titanium
  • Chapter 13, Zirconium
  • Chapter 15, Fire Prevention, Fire Protection, and Emergency Response
  • Chapter 16, Combustible Metal Recycling Facilities

Status: Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response
Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response (O - ARAR) - Response from recipient indicates a planned action that would satisfy the objective of the recommendation when implemented.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2011-3-I-WV-2

Develop training materials that address combustible dust hazards and plant-specific metal dust hazards and then train all employees and contractors.  Require periodic (e.g., annual) refresher training for all employees and contractors.


Status: Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response
Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response (O - ARAR) - Response from recipient indicates a planned action that would satisfy the objective of the recommendation when implemented.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

AL Solutions, Inc. facility in Burgettstown, PA (2 Recommendations)
Open: 100% | Closed: 0%

Final Report Released On: July 16, 2014

2011-3-I-WV-3

Prohibit the use of sprinkler systems and water deluge systems in all buildings that process or store combustible metals.


Status: Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response
Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response (O - ARAR) - Response from recipient indicates a planned action that would satisfy the objective of the recommendation when implemented.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary

2011-3-I-WV-4

Conduct a process hazard analysis as defined in NFPA 484-2012, Section 12.2.5, and submit a copy to the local fire department or the enforcing authority for the fire code.


Status: Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response
Open - Acceptable Response or Alternate Response (O - ARAR) - Response from recipient indicates a planned action that would satisfy the objective of the recommendation when implemented.
 

PDF Document Recommendation Status Change Summary